Narcotics Addiction

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Narcotics are defined by the dictionary as drugs that if taken in moderate amounts can dull the senses, relieve pain and induce sleep but in excess can result in coma, stupor or even convulsions. The term is used for a wide range of drugs including but not limited to opioids or prescription painkillers. These are one of the most addictive substances worldwide. From illegal street drugs to legal prescription opioids, narcotics can be found everywhere. Although there is medical use for narcotics, they are also abused by many in large quantities.

Narcotic overdose deaths have reached epidemic proportions in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), opioids (including prescription opioids, heroin, and fentanyl) caused the death of more than 33,000 people in 2015.

Opioids can be categorized as naturally occurring, semi-synthetic and synthetic. Opium is extracted from the plant Papaver somniferum (the opium poppy), and morphine is the primary active component of opium.

Opioids bind to the mu-opioid receptors in the brain and produce analgesia and euphoria. The human body produces natural opioids that bind to these receptors to alleviate pain. The word endorphin is a combination of two words: endogenous morphine. Endorphins are natural opioids produced in the body.

Ingestion of exogenous opioids, implying opioids that are not produced in the body, can lead to an addiction. These opioids bind to the same receptors as endogenous opioids. Specific opioids isolated from the plant are known as naturally occurring. Whereas semi-synthetic opioids are the ones that are initially derived from plants, and then, mixed with other synthetic chemicals.

What is Addiction?

Addiction is a disease that manipulates a person’s sense of reward, motivation, memory and a number of related neurological functions.

Narcotics Addiction
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The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies opioids as Schedule I, Schedule II or Schedule III, depending on their medical benefit and addictive properties. Some of the common types of narcotic drugs are:

  • Heroin
  • Oxycodone
  • Fentanyl
  • Hydrocodone
  • Methadone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Codeine
  • Morphine
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Symptoms of opioid intoxication and withdrawal

Opioid intoxication can be lethal, and withdrawal symptoms, although not life-threatening, are physically excruciating. Taken orally in the form of a pill, lollipop or film, and injected intravenously, narcotic or opioid intoxication can even lead to death due to respiratory depression.

Some of the common signs of opioid intoxication include:

  • Pinpoint pupils
  • Confusion
  • Drowsiness
  • Respiratory depression
  • Constipation
  • Dry secretions
  • Pruritus
  • Slurred speech

An individual withdrawing from opioids can experience the following:

  • Agitation
  • Tremors
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Dilated pupils
  • Gastrointestinal pain
  • Intense muscle pain
  • Excessive sweating

Those trying to overcome a narcotics addiction can normally find effective help through narcotic withdrawal treatment.

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Narcotic addiction treatment

Treatment for narcotics is essential to help alleviate the withdrawal symptoms and, therefore, break the addiction cycle. Suboxone, methadone, naloxone and naltrexone are the most commonly prescribed treatments for opioid withdrawal and addiction. Full treatment can normally be found at narcotic rehab centers that offer detox program and a number of other treatment programs.

Suboxone

Suboxone is composed of buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, and naloxone, an opioid antagonist. As a partial opioid agonist, buprenorphine produces less of an effect than a full opioid when it attaches to a mu-opioid receptor in the brain. When buprenorphine is stuck in the receptor, the problematic full opioids like heroin and oxycodone can’t get in, suppressing the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with these problem opioids. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist or an opioid blocker. Naloxone can also bind to the mu-opioid receptor and, when taken alone, can cause severe withdrawal in opioid-dependent patients. Naloxone was added to Suboxone to discourage people from crushing and snorting or injecting Suboxone.

Naloxone

Naloxone is an injectable opioid antagonist given to individuals who are in an acute state of opioid overdose. It has a very short duration of action and causes symptoms of opioid withdrawal almost immediately after administration. By eliminating opioid binding to receptors, naloxone prevents respiratory depression and causes agitation, nausea, vomiting and severe muscle pain, which are all side effects of opioid withdrawal.

Naltrexone

Naltrexone, commonly known as Vivitrol, is an oral opioid antagonist and is much more potent than naloxone. In addition, it has a longer duration and takes a longer time to reach its peak activity. While naloxone is administered in emergency care settings, naltrexone can be administered in outpatient settings over a long period of time.

Methadone

Methadone is a full opioid agonist and is administered over time as an opioid taper to wean patients off narcotics. Although this is the oldest treatment used for narcotic abuse, it is less commonly used today due to its addictive potential as a full agonist.

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Sovereign Health’s narcotic treatment program

Sovereign Health offers a comprehensive treatment to those dealing with narcotic addiction. Our 24/7 recovery treatment program includes detoxification treatment, medications, holistic therapies, family counseling, physical and psychological health evaluations, opioid abuse and health education as well as 12-step Narcotics Anonymous meetings.

At Sovereign Health, we typically make use of Suboxone as part of the narcotics detox treatment to withdraw from opioids. In order to offer a customized treatment that fits each patient’s needs, the medical director chooses the detox regimen at one of the best narcotics detox centers and hence, ensures a speedy recovery of the person.

To find help for yourself or a loved one with narcotics addiction, please do not hesitate to call our 24/7 helpline.